Prevention Quality Indicators Overview

What are Prevention Quality Indicators?

The Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) are a set of measures that can be used with hospital inpatient discharge data to identify quality of care for "ambulatory care sensitive conditions." These are conditions for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent the need for hospitalization or for which early intervention can prevent complications or more severe disease. The PQIs are population based and adjusted for covariates.

Even though these indicators are based on hospital inpatient data, they provide insight into the community health care system or services outside the hospital setting. For example, patients with diabetes may be hospitalized for diabetic complications if their conditions are not adequately monitored or if they do not receive the patient education needed for appropriate self-management.

How are Prevention Quality Indicators used?

The PQIs can be used as a "screening tool" to help flag potential health care quality problem areas that need further investigation; provide a quick check on primary care access or outpatient services in a community by using patient data found in a typical hospital discharge abstract; and, help public health agencies, State data organizations, health care systems, and others interested in improving health care quality in their communities.

With high-quality, community-based primary care, hospitalization for these illnesses often can be avoided. Although other factors outside the direct control of the health care system, such as poor environmental conditions or lack of patient adherence to treatment recommendations, can result in hospitalization, the PQIs provide a good starting point for assessing quality of health services in the community. Because the PQIs are calculated using readily available hospital administrative data, they are an easy-to-use and inexpensive screening tool. They can be used to provide a window into the community — to identify unmet community health care needs, to monitor how well complications from a number of common conditions are being avoided in the outpatient setting, and to compare performance of local health care systems across communities.

For more information about the Prevention Quality Indicators, download the Prevention Quality Indicators Brochure.

Prevention Quality Indicators Resources

Technical Specifications

  • Individual Measure Technical Specifications (ICD 9 only version) — Provides a breakdown of the calculations used to formulate each PQI; each technical specification document includes a brief description of the measure, numerator information, denominator information and details on cases that should be excluded from calculations.

  • Individual Measure Technical Specifications (includes ICD 10 coding) — Coming Soon…

  • Log of Coding Updates and Revisions — Provides tables summarizing the revisions made to the PQI software, software documentation and the technical specification documents since the original release of these documents in November 2001; the tables also reflect changes to indicator specifications based on updates to ICD-9-CM and MS-DRG codes through Fiscal Year 2013 (effective October 1, 2012) and incorporate coding updates that were implemented in both versions of the PQI software (SAS and Windows)

  • Parameter Estimates — Provides tables of PQI covariates and coefficients for risk adjustment logistic regression modelsProvides tables of PQI covariates and coefficients for risk adjustment logistic regression models.

  • Benchmark Data Tables — Provides tables of nationwide comparative rates for the PQI, including observed rate, numerator, and denominator data for each indicator overall and stratified by sex, age group, and insurance status.

Additional PQI Resources

Quality Indicator Software

Visit the AHRQ QI Software Page for more information on the Quality Indicators SAS 5.0 and WinQI software.