Pediatric Quality Indicators Overview
What are Pediatric Quality Indicators?
The Pediatric Quality Indicators (PDIs) are a set of measures that can be used with hospital inpatient discharge data to provide a perspective on the quality of pediatric healthcare. Specifically, PDIs screen for problems that pediatric patients experience as a result of exposure to the healthcare system and that may be amenable to prevention by changes at the system or provider level.
Development of quality indicators for the pediatric population involves many of the same challenges associated with the development of quality indicators for the adult population. These challenges include the need to carefully define indicators using administrative data, establish validity and reliability, detect bias and design appropriate risk adjustment, and overcome challenges of implementation and use. However, the special population of children invokes additional, special challenges. Four factors—differential epidemiology of child healthcare relative to adult healthcare, dependency, demographics, and development—can pervade all aspects of children’s healthcare; simply applying adult indicators to younger age ranges is insufficient.
This PDIs focus on potentially preventable complications and iatrogenic events for pediatric patients treated in hospitals, and on preventable hospitalizations among pediatric patients.
How are Pediatric Quality Indicators used?
The PDIs apply to the special characteristics of the pediatric population; screen for problems that pediatric patients experience as a result of exposure to the healthcare system and that may be amenable to prevention by changes at the provider level or area level; and, help to evaluate preventive care for children in an outpatient setting, and most children are rarely hospitalized.For more information about the Pediatric Quality Indicators, download the Pediatric Quality Indicators Brochure.
Pediatric Quality Indicator Resources
- Individual Measure Technical Specifications (v7.0 ICD-10-CM/PCS coding only) —
Provides a breakdown of the calculations used to formulate each PDI; each technical specification document
includes a brief description of the measure, numerator information, denominator information, and details on cases that should be excluded from calculations.
- Individual Measure Technical Specifications (v6.0 ICD-9-CM only version) — Provides a breakdown of the calculations used to formulate each PDI; each technical specification document includes a brief description of the measure, numerator information, denominator information, and details on cases that should be excluded from calculations.
- Parameter Estimates for v6.0 ICD-9-CM* — Provides tables of PDI covariates and coefficients for risk adjustment logistic regression models.
- Benchmark Data Tables for v6.0 ICD-9-CM* — Provides tables of nationwide comparative rates for the PDI, including observed rate, numerator, and denominator data for each indicator overall and stratified by sex, age group, and insurance status.
- Log of Coding Updates and Revisions for v6.0 ICD-9-CM & ICD-10-CM/PCS versions — Provides tables summarizing the revisions made to the PDI software, software documentation, and the technical specification documents since the original release of these documents in November 2001. - Updated September 2017
*Parameter Estimates and Benchmark Data will be published in the future once the risk adjustment is added to the ICD-10-CM/PCDS software.
To access v6.0 Quality Indicator materials and earlier versions, visit the Archives page.
Additional PDI Resources
- AHRQ Composite Measures Workgroup — Summarizes the work of the PDI Composite Measure Workgroup, which was convened to assist AHRQ in developing a composite measure based
on the Pediatric Quality Indicators. For more information on Composite Workgroups, visit the AHRQ QI Composite Workgroups page.
- AHRQ PDI Development — provides information on how the PDI measure set was developed.
Quality Indicator Software
Visit the AHRQ QI Software Page for more information on the Quality Indicators SAS 5.0 and WinQI software.